Monday, 4 August 2014

Malnutrition - Inadequate Nutrition

Malnutrition is one of nutritional disorder majorly in developing countries in which there is lack of adequate nutrition. Malnutrition increases the risk of infectious disease and weakens the immune system Malnutrition is defined by either inadequate or excess intake of nutrients such as proteins , and vitamins .In this diet is rich in calories and defecient in vitamins and minerals .

 Causes- • Lack of proper diet
• Mental health problems –depression , anorexia nervosa , bulimia
 • Digestive disorders –ulcerative colitis , celiac disease , people with regualr diarrhoea nd vomitting . • Alcholism
• In developing nations –shortage of food
 • Lack of breast feeding Malnutrition affects people of all ages .People who are at a higher risk of developing disease –Elderly , socially isolated people , people with chronic eating dsiorders  

A malnurioshed pateint shows significant signs of
• Dryness of eyes
• Angular stomatitis , cheilitis , parotid enlargement , spongy bleeding gums
 • Dull, brittle hair and alopecia
 • Loose wrinkled skin
• Wasting of muscles
 • Impaired memory , development delay
 • Depression • Weight loss
 • Problems in fertility
 • Irritability
 • Long time for healing
• Lowering of body temperature
 • Inability to concenterate According to some reports malnutrition is more prevelant in female children than male children . Physically malnurioshed children appear to be thin, with swollen hands  and feet , these malnurioshed childtren are more prone to infectious diseases . Measels is one of major cause of malnutrition in kids . Inadequate  food intake ,infections , psychosocial factors, environment and genetic factors all conribute to malnutrition .

 Malnutrition in women – Women have more nutritional requirements than men .Early marriage , childbearing women , frequent pregnancies  with short interval and breast feeding women all these factors pose a nutritional burden on women .Women needs major minerals and vitamins in  more quantity as- iron, iodine , calcium, folic acid , vitamin A , vitamin C , vitamin K. Good hygiene , proper sanitation and hygiene palys good role in preventing malnutrition . In all these cases nutritional assessements is important .Apart from this measuring BMI ( Body mass Index) weight in kilograms over height in metres squared – Weight/height (in m)2) and mid arm circumference. Malnutrition increases the risk of early death . Malnutrition includes marasmus and cretinism . Inadequate food intake, infections, psychosocial deprivation, the environment, and perhaps genetics contribute  

Management
• Improved water supply, sanitation and hygiene.
 • Educating people for healthy diet.
 • Maintaining right balance of – carbohydrates , fruits and vegetables , proteins and fats