Thursday, 10 July 2014

Type of Fungal Infection

World is full of molds, yeast and fungi but only few can cause skin problems. The agents which cause skin problems are called dermatophytes, which mean skin fungi. Skin fungi live on top of skin in dead keratin protein layer and rarely invade deep into the body. Some favorable conditions such as humid condition of skin allow the fungi to grow and cause skin problems, most commonly in the skin folds. Other than warm humid conditions greater risk factors are coming in contact with affected individual or infected surface.
Some fungi lives on human skin, hair or nails while others live on animals and some are found in soil. Therefore it is difficult to identify source of skin fungal disease.

Another name for fungal infection is mycosis. Candida is the species of fungi that is responsible for fungal infection in humans. Candida is normally present within human body and is usually harmless. When immune system becomes weak or other conditions allow it to grow it causes symptoms in a person.
Frequency of fungal infection is increasing now days because of increased use of antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs. Normally bacteria are present on body but this frequent use of antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs disrupt normal bacterial colonization and suppress immune system, this creates an environment within the body in which fungi can thrive.

Different types of fungal infection:

• Tinea pedis (Athlete’s foot).
• Tinea cruris (Jock itch).
• Tine corporis (Ringworm).
• Tinea unguium (Onychomycosis).
• Candidiasis albicans.
• Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor).
• Tinea capitis.
• Tinea barbae.

1.Tinea pedis (Athlete’s foot):
Athlete’s foot is also known as tinea pedis. Athlete’s foot is a common skin condition which is highly contagious. People who are sweaty and wear tight fitting shoes are commonly affected by athlete’s foot. Sole of the foot and skin between the toes is affected. Warm humid climate is a favorable condition for the organism to grow.
Most commonly athlete’s foot is not noticeable as it presents itself as dry flaky skin. Extensive athlete’s foot looks like red, peeling, and dry skin. Dry flakes may spread on to top or sides of the feet. Space between the toes have moisture, peeling and dry flakes.
Athlete’s foot may spread to other parts of body like hands, nails and groin.

2.Tinea cruris (Jock Itch):
jock itch
Jock itch is an itchy rash of the groin. It is a red or pink rash that affects groin folds and genitals. Majority cases of jock itch resolve without any treatment. Jock itch is mainly seen in the groin but it can spread to the thighs, groin or anus.
Jock itch may cause from tight underwear, sweating, excess moisture, skin rubbing, skin infection or allergic problems. Diabetic and obese people are more prone to jock itch.

3.Tinea corporis (Ringworm):

tinea corporis
Exposed parts of body are most commonly affected such as arms, legs and face. There is formation of red ring shaped rash which grows slowly. Occasionally scaling, crusting, raised areas or blisters can appear.
• Ringworm of scalp is called tinea capitis: Tinea capitis is fungal infection of scalp and hair shaft. It appears as scaly, itchy and bald patch on head. Hair of the infected area becomes brittle. It is highly contagious infection. Few cases of tinea capitis results in severe inflammation with scarring or permanent hair loss.
• Ringworm of beard is called tinea barbae: Tinea barbae is fungal infection of beard and mustache area of adult males only. Tinea barbae infection is less common in occurrence as compared to tinea capitis. Tinea barbae appears as red inflamed area, pustules and crusting around the hair occurs. Hair pulls out easily.
4.Tinea unguium (Onychomycosis):
Onychomycosis starts at the edge of the nail and slowly spread down to the nail bed. Toe nail most commonly get affected as compared to finger nails. Discoloration of nail occurs and then nail becomes crumbly. Nail becomes thick and painful to wear shoes.
If a person is having athlete’s foot then the infection can spread to nails. Risk factors of having onychomycosis are heavy sweating, humid or moist, wearing shoes and socks with heavy sweat, minor nail in jury, diabetes, circulation problems, and weak immune system.

5.Candida albicans:
candida albicans
Candida albicans is present on skin and in mucous membrane such as urinary tract, mouth, vagina or rectum. Candida albicans can travel through bold stream and infect, throat, heart valves and intestines. Favorable condition for the candida albicans to multiply in their place is may be over use of antibiotics that destroy the beneficial micro-organism in the body.
• Candida infection of mouth is called thrush that appears as creamy-white or bluish white patch on tongue.
• Candida causes diaper rash in which skin appears red, inflamed and scaly.
• Candida infection of vagina is characterized by yellow or white discharge. Wall of vagina and vulva get inflamed it results in burning and itching.
• Candida infection of penis is called balanitis that causes inflammation of head of penis.

6.Tinea versicolor:
tinea versicolor

Tinea versicolor is a common fungal infection of skin that affects normal pigmentation of skin and causes small discolored patches. These patches can be light or dark as compared to surrounding skin, it is slow growing patch scaly and mild itchy. Back, neck, chest and upper arms are commonly affected.