Sunday, 29 June 2014

MISSED PERIODS

Normal menstrual cycle in female lasts for 28 days (+/- 7 days).Menstrual bleeding is irregular when it occurs more frequently than every 21days or lasts longer than 8 days.
Women between the age group of 11-13 years of age start having menses. Menstrual periods are usually irregular during first few years of starting menstruation. Pregnancy is one of major reason for missed or late period.

In women Estrogen is an important hormone which helps in building the uterine lining and preparing body for pregnancy.

As stress is also one of major factor for missed periods, stress suppresses the Hypothalamus function which controls the Pituitary gland (Master gland) which controls Thyroid, Adrenal gland and Ovaries.
Disturbance in menstrual cycle is one of major cause in reproductive age female who need medical attention .It is estimated that about 2%-5 % of women have these complaints of which the prevalence is higher in female athletes .

Menstrual cycle disturbances are one of the most common complaints causing women of reproductive age to seek medical care. An estimated 2% to 5% of women in the general population have amenorrhea. The prevalence is even higher in female athletes; an estimated 66% of these women do not get their periods.
In some cases, imbalance in Prolactin hormone can also lead to missed periods .Prolactin is a pituitary hormone allowing lactation after birth of child. In women who are not pregnant, elevation in prolactin level is abnormal but rise in prolactin level take place due to benign growth (microadenoma ) on pituitary gland .

Missed period can be due to-
• Weight loss / weight gain
• Obesity
• Eating disorders –Bulimia, anorexia nervosa
• Increased physical activity
• Emotional or physical stress –chronic or long term anxiety
• Travelling
• Birth control pills
• Hormonal imbalance
• Polycystic ovary syndrome
• Breast feeding
• Illegal drug use
• Irritable bowel syndrome , liver disease , diabetes
• Thyroid gland disorders –when the level of thyroid in blood becomes too high or too low
• Depression
• Poor nutrition
• Menopause
• Women who have been injured , women with auto-immune disorder, pituitary tumor , undergoing chemotherapy experience ovarian failure which leads to missed or late period
• Women with genetic disorder      
         
Risk factor-
• Acute liver disease, pancreatic disease
• Gall bladder disease
• Stroke, blood clot
• Hypertension
• Migraine headache

Women may complaint of symptoms of –
• Nausea
• Headache
• Depression and fluid retention
Missed /late periods to side affects- weight gain, bloating and irritability

Diagnosis-
Home Pregnancy test for detecting pregnancy

Management -
• Managing stress
• Yoga and medication
• Proper sleep
• Vitamin Supplements
• Staying healthy with eating a well balanced diet
• Consuming lot of fruits and vegetables
• Changes in lifestyle
• Avoid smoking or tobacco products
• Avoid caffeine
• Herbal tea
• Warm relaxing bath
• consuming dairy products in moderation
• avoid skipping meals
• avoiding excess salty food

Role of Homeopathy-Jonosia Ashoka –
• Delayed and irregular menses
• Pain in menses , pain in ovaries before flow
• Irritable bladder

Gossypium –
• Intermittent pain in ovaries
• Morning sickness , menses suppressed , menses watery
• Dragging in pelvis , backache
• Uterine fibroid

Sepia –
• It is one of major remedy in women with menstrual problems
• Relaxed pelvic organs with bearing down sensation
• Menses too late , scanty
• Morning sickness , prolapsed of uterus
• Pulsating headache
• Great uterine remedy

Pulsatilla –
• Lower abdominal pains and cramps
• Desire for open air
• Thirst less , aversion to fatty food
• Suppressed menses , too late and scanty
• Dark clotted blood , pain in back