Sunday, 15 June 2014

Estrogen Hormones In Women

An estrogen test measures the level of the important estrogen hormones ( estradiol ,estriol, and estrone) in a blood urine sample.

Estradiol is the commonly measured estrogen in a non-pregnanat women and its value varies throughout the menstrual cycle. Estradiol is the primary sex hormone of childbearing women. It is formed from developing ovarian follicles. Estradiol is responsible for female characteristics and sexual functioning. Also, estradiol is important to women’s bone health. Estradiol contributes to most gynecologic problems, including endometriosis and fibroids and even female cancers.

• Estriol levels usually are measured only during pregnancy. Estriol is produced in large amounts by the placenta which links the fetus to the mother. It can be detected as early as the 9th week of pregnancy, and its levels increase until delivery. Estriol can also be measured in urine.

• Estrogens are responsible for complete female sexual development, such as breast development development and the menstrual cycle.

• In women, estrogens are produced mainly in the ovaries and in the placenta during pregnancy. Small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands. In men, small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal glands and testicles.

• Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries Estrogens are steroid compounds that are important for development and functioning of females of the species. Estrogens are used as a part of some oral contraceptives, and hormone replacement therapies.

• The stimulation for secretion of estrogen comes from the Luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary gland.

• Estrogen is used to treat sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating in women who are experiencing menopause .Some types of estrogen are also used to treat vaginal dryness, itching, or burning, and preventing osteoporosis in women who are experiencing menopause.

Level of Estrogen is high during - • Cancer
• Liver disease
• A pregnancy with more than one fetus, such as twins or triplets.
• Early puberty.

Level of estrogen falls during - • Hypogonadism
• Hypopituitarism
• Pregnancy failure
• Menopause
• Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
• Anorexia nervosa (eating disorder)
• Extreme exercise or training

Estrogen levels fall at menopause. This is a natural transition for all women between ages 40 and 55. During pregnancy, estrogen levels can be many times higher than normal

Why Estrogen test is done –
• Detecting fetal birth defects such as –Down syndrome during pregnancy.
• When the test for estriol is combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), it is called a triple screen test.
• Evaluate estrogen-producing tumors of the ovaries in girls before menstruation starts and in women after menopause.
• Explain abnormal sexual characteristics in men, such as enlarged breasts (gynecomastia). This test can also help detect the presence of estrogen-producing tumors growing in the testicles.

Women before menopause 20-750 picograms per milliliter ( pg/mL ) Women after menopause: Less than or equal to 20 pg/mL